Tatoeba-2020.08. [105] After the Soviet withdrawal, the civil war ensued until the communist regime under People's Democratic Party leader Mohammad Najibullah collapsed in 1992. His troops are said to have annihilated the Khorasanian cities of Herat and Balkh as well as Bamyan. [351][352] Non-governmental charities such as Save the Children and Mahboba's Promise assist orphans in association with governmental structures. The Islamic State claimed responsibility for the attacks, which killed at least eight in the Afghan capital and came on a day when Secretary of State Mike Pompeo was to … Air transport in Afghanistan is provided by the national carrier, Ariana Afghan Airlines,[328] and by the private company Kam Air. In recent years, there has been an uptick in saffron production, which authorities and farmers are trying to replace poppy cultivation. The capital of Afghanistan is its largest city, Kabul. [325] Several mountain passes allow travel between the Hindu Kush in other areas. Over the next decade, ISAF and Afghan troops led many offensives against the Taliban, but failed to fully defeat them. [259][260], Homosexuality is taboo in Afghan society;[261] according to the Penal Code, homosexual intimacy is punished by up to a year in prison. Two shells hit the compound of Kabul’s Hamid Karzai International Airport. Past initiatives to address urban growth have had limited success, with much of this expansion taking place in an informal, unplanned manner, thereby presenting problems for future service provision. In 1978, after a second coup, Afghanistan first became a socialist state, evoking the Soviet–Afghan War in the 1980s against mujahideen rebels. To the south and west of the Hindu Kush flow a number of streams that are tributaries of the Indus River,[176] such as the Helmand River. [275][276][277] Similar development projects have also begun in Herat, Mazar-e-Sharif, and other cities. "America with her rich and modern weaponry knelt down to us mujahedeen. Kidnapping for ransom and robberies are common in major cities. It won the ACC Twenty20 Cup in 2007, 2009, 2011 and 2013. Since the 1900s, the nation began to use Western techniques in art. At multiple points, the land has been incorporated within vast regional empires, among them the Achaemenid Empire, the Macedonian Empire, the Indian Maurya Empire, and the Islamic Empire. An important site of early historical activities, many believe that Afghanistan compares to Egypt in terms of the historical value of its archaeological sites.[15][36]. They were followed by the Kidarites who, in turn, were replaced by the Hephthalites. [176] It is dominated by the Hindu Kush range, the western extension of the Himalayas that stretches to eastern Tibet via the Pamir Mountains and Karakoram Mountains in Afghanistan's far north-east. GUTMAN, Roy (2008): How We Missed the Story: Osama Bin Laden, the Taliban and the Hijacking of Afghanistan, Endowment of the United States Institute of Peace, 1st ed., Washington D.C. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (. These include Air India, Emirates, Gulf Air, Iran Aseman Airlines, Pakistan International Airlines, and Turkish Airlines. [274] Some of the major national construction projects include the $35 billion New Kabul City next to the capital, the Aino Mena project in Kandahar, and the Ghazi Amanullah Khan Town near Jalalabad. [360] Afghan culture is deeply Islamic,[361] but pre-Islamic practices persist. [11] Despite having $1 trillion or more in mineral deposits,[269] it remains one of the world's least developed countries. fr Il y a des milliers de veuves dans la capitale de l'Afghanistan. He fought for Article 68 of Afghanistan's 1923 constitution, which made elementary education compulsory. Several Bollywood films have been shot inside Afghanistan, including Dharmatma, Khuda Gawah, Escape from Taliban, and Kabul Express. Including domestic airports, there are 43. [337], Education in Afghanistan includes K–12 and higher education, which is overseen by the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Higher Education. The national team has never competed or qualified for the FIFA World Cup but has recently won an international football trophy in 2013. The Supreme Court is led by Chief Justice Said Yusuf Halem, the former Deputy Minister of Justice for Legal Affairs. The … "[302], Access to biocapacity in Afghanistan is lower than world average. [247], Law enforcement in Afghanistan is the responsibility of the Afghan National Police (ANP), which is part of the Ministry of Interior Affairs. [248] Afghanistan's intelligence agency, the National Directorate of Security (NDS), assists the ANP with security matters.[249]. Faced with the overwhelming armed opposition, Amanullah Khan abdicated in January 1929, and soon after Kabul fell to Saqqawist forces led by Habibullah Kalakani. From its discord, the discord of Asia; and from its accord, the accord of Asia. [58] Between the 16th and 18th century, the Uzbek Khanate of Bukhara, Iranian Safavids, and Indian Mughals ruled parts of the territory. Malgré que la capitale d’Afghanistan KABOUL a été gravement endommagée pendant les guerres 1979-2001 divers, en particulier ses parties occidentales. [16] Indo-Aryans migrated through Bactria-Margiana area to Gandhara, followed by the rise of the Iron Age Yaz I culture (ca. Student lives in fear in Afghanistan 02:32. [40], Alexander the Great and his Macedonian forces arrived in Afghanistan in 330 BCE after defeating Darius III of Persia a year earlier in the Battle of Gaugamela. - (NL) Capital punishment is barbaric and freedom of expression is set in stone in Afghanistan's constitution. A 2010 earthquake left 11 Afghans dead, over 70 injured, and more than 2,000 houses destroyed. [229] The 2014 presidential election ended with Ashraf Ghani winning by 56.44% of the votes. capital of Afghanistan prevod v slovarju angleščina - slovenščina na Glosbe, online slovar, brezplačno. The region at the time was referred to as Ariana. [422], Democratic Republic regime and Soviet war, Post-Cold War conflict and Taliban regime, Incorrect names that have been used as demonyms are. [304] In 2016 Afghanistan used 0.73 global hectares of biocapacity per person - their ecological footprint of consumption. [149][150] Meanwhile, Karzai attempted to unite the peoples of the country,[151] and the Afghan government was able to build some democratic structures, adopting a constitution in 2004 with the name Islamic Republic of Afghanistan. [64] The Afghan dynasty was ousted from Persia by Nader Shah after the 1729 Battle of Damghan. [55] Mongol rule continued with the Ilkhanate in the northwest while the Khalji dynasty administered the Afghan tribal areas south of the Hindu Kush until the invasion of Timur (aka Tamerlane), who established the Timurid Empire in 1370. So how will you defy us?" Coming from Iran, the trail traveled through various Afghan provinces and cities including Herat, Kandahar and Kabul before crossing to northern Pakistan, northern India, and Nepal. La capitale de l'Afghanistan est située sur la rivière Kaboul et est située à une altitude de 1800 m d'altitude. After 2000 BCE, successive waves of semi-nomadic people from Central Asia began moving south into Afghanistan; among them were many Indo-European-speaking Indo-Iranians. [278] An estimated 400,000 people enter the labor market each year. By 2001 following years of civil war, telecommunications was virtually a non-existent sector, but by 2016 it had grown to a $2 billion industry, with 22 million mobile phone subscribers and 5 million internet users. You’ll need to match them to their countries. Kenoyer, Jonathan Mark (1998). [355], Afghan clothing for both men and women typically consists of various forms of shalwar kameez, especially perahan tunban and khet partug. Kabul is … The Hindu Kush ends at the west-central highlands, creating plains in the north and southwest, namely the Turkestan Plains and the Sistan Basin; these two regions consist of rolling grasslands and semi-deserts, and hot windy deserts, respectively. [163] It was estimated in 2015 that "about 147,000 people have been killed in the Afghanistan war since 2001. en Kabul is the capital of Afghanistan. CAPITAL OF AFGHANISTAN 'CAPITAL OF AFGHANISTAN' is a 20 letter phrase starting with C and ending with N Crossword clues for 'CAPITAL OF AFGHANISTAN' [379][380] Much of lapis lazuli stones were earthed in modern-day Afghanistan which were used in Chinese porcelain as cobalt blue, later used in ancient Mesopotamia and Turkey.[381]. [294] In 2011, Afghanistan signed an oil exploration contract with China National Petroleum Corporation (CNPC) for the development of three oil fields along the Amu Darya river in the north. Afghanistan. [1] Pashto is the native tongue of the Pashtuns, although many of them are also fluent in Dari while some non-Pashtuns are fluent in Pashto. [165], Afghanistan is located in South Asia[166][167] and Central Asia -[168][169][170] indeed the region particularly centered at Afghanistan is considered the "crossroads of Asia",[171] and the country has had the nickname Heart of Asia. Kabul is the capital and largest city. In 2019, Reporters Without Borders listed the media environment of Afghanistan as 121st out of 179 on its Press Freedom Index, with 1st being most free. [389] It has been claimed that Afghanistan is among the biggest markets for the Hindi film industry. Ancient Eastern Iranian languages may have been spoken in the region around the time of the rise of Zoroastrianism. The PDPA declared the establishment of the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan, with its first leader named as People's Democratic Party general secretary Nur Muhammad Taraki. Their efforts to bring Afghanistan into the Central Powers failed, but it caused discontent among the population for keeping neutrality against the British. Afghanistan remains one of the poorest countries in the world because of a lack of foreign investment, government corruption, and the Taliban insurgency. In 1747, Ahmad Shah Durrani established the Durrani Empire with its capital at Kandahar. It lies at the intersection of roads that lead to Uzbekistan (via Mazār-e SharÄ«f) to the north, Pakistan (via Jalālābād) to the east, and Kandahār to the south. They were defeated and expelled by the Indo-Scythians in the late 2nd century BCE.[4][41]. [393][392] Other notable masters of traditional or popular Afghan music include Nashenas, Ubaidullah Jan, Mahwash, Ahmad Wali, Farhad Darya, and Naghma. Located in the east-central part of the country, Kabul – is the capital and largest city of Afghanistan. [290][291] In 2010, US and Afghan government officials estimated that untapped mineral deposits located in 2007 by the US Geological Survey are worth at least $1 trillion. [355], Classic Persian and Pashto poetry are a cherished part of Afghan culture. In a mosque on the outskirts of Afghanistan's capital, Kabul, a preacher crowed to assembled men and boys: The Taliban, with their primitive guns, brought foreign forces to their knees, he said, and the Afghan government is next. There are also provincial councils that are elected through direct and general elections for four years. [147][148] The Taliban began an insurgency to regain control of Afghanistan. [244] Relations with Pakistan have often been tense for various reasons such as the Durand Line border issue and alleged Pakistani involvement in Afghan insurgent groups. [189], Gazelles, wild pigs and jackals populate the steppe plains of the south and west, while mongoose and cheetahs exist in the semi-desert south. More than 38,000 of those killed have been civilians". Three rockets land near Kabul airport and seven in residential areas, leaving one civilian dead and two others wounded. Among the most well known are the Great Mosque of Herat, the Blue Mosque, the Minaret of Jam, the Chil Zena, the Qala-i Bost in Lashkargah, the ancient Greek city of Ai-Khanoum. During this time female artists also started appearing, at first Mermon Parwin. The Afghan Armed Forces are under the Ministry of Defense, which includes the Afghan Air Force (AAF) and the Afghan National Army (ANA). Kabul - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Kabul - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Updates? [308] In recent years an increasing number of solar, biomass and wind power plants have been constructed. Habibullah was assassinated during a hunting trip in 1919, and Amanullah Khan eventually assumed power. He was succeeded by his son, Timur Shah, who transferred the capital of Afghanistan from Kandahar to Kabul in 1776, with Peshawar becoming the winter capital. Kabul, Persian Kābol, city, capital of the province of Kabul and of Afghanistan. - (NL) Smrtna kazen je barbarska, svoboda izražanja pa … The Mauryans controlled the area south of the Hindu Kush until they were overthrown in about 185 BCE. Hamid Karzai International Airport, which lies to the north of the city centre, has been expanded to meet an increase in both civilian and military air traffic. [93][94] Lasting nine years, the war caused the deaths of between 562,000[95] and 2 million Afghans,[96][97][98][99][100][101][102] and displaced about 6 million people who subsequently fled Afghanistan, mainly to Pakistan and Iran. [92] The United States and Pakistan,[87] along with smaller actors like Saudi Arabia and China, continued supporting the rebels, delivering billions of dollars in cash and weapons including two thousand FIM-92 Stinger surface-to-air missiles. Despite that, archaeologists are still finding Buddhist relics in different parts of the country, some of them dating back to the 2nd century. [53], In 1219 AD, Genghis Khan and his Mongol army overran the region. The Marco Polo sheep exclusively live in the Wakhan Corridor region of north-east Afghanistan. View of Kabul, capital city of Afghanistan - Acheter cette photo libre de droit et découvrir des images similaires sur Adobe Stock shouted the preacher on a sunny Friday in late October. ", "Huge security as Afghan presidential election looms", "Afghanistan votes in historic presidential election", "Landmark Afghanistan Presidential Election Held Under Shadow of Violence", "Afghanistan's Future: Who's Who in Pivotal Presidential Election", "Afghan president Ashraf Ghani inaugurated after bitter campaign", "U.S. formally ends the war in Afghanistan", "Nato ends combat operations in Afghanistan", "Body Count – Casualty Figures after 10 Years of the 'War on Terror' – Iraq Afghanistan Pakistan", "U.S. War on Terror has reportedly killed 1.3 million people in a decade", "220,000 killed in US war in Afghanistan 80,000 in Pakistan: report", "South Asia: Data, Projects, and Research", "MAPS SHOWING GEOLOGY, OIL AND GAS FIELDS AND GEOLOGICAL PROVINCES OF SOUTH ASIA (Includes Afghanistan)", "University of Washington Jackson School of International Studies: The South Asia Center", "Syracruse University: The South Asia Center", "Composition of macro geographical (continental) regions, geographical sub-regions, and selected economic and other groupings", https://www.cemml.colostate.edu/cultural/09476/afgh01.html, https://cropwatch.unl.edu/documents/Forests%20of%20Afghanistan.pdf, "History of Environmental Change in the Sistan Basin 1976–2005", "Afghanistan Rivers Lakes – Afghanistan's Web Site", "Snow may end Afghan drought, but bitter winter looms", "Afghanistan's woeful water management delights neighbors", "Present and future Köppen-Geiger climate classification maps at 1-km resolution", "Afghanistan Plant and Animal Life – Afghanistan's Web Site", United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, "NSIA Estimates Afghanistan Population at 32.9M", "Afghanistan Population 2020 (Demographics, Maps, Graphs)", "Afghanistan – Population Reference Bureau", "Is recent Afghanistan survey data suitable for fertility analysis? 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